System Integration Plan:
Monitoring Network Integration
- Software development, prototyping, testing and validation,
software tools, common data formats, networking, client-server architecture.
- DRAFT Release 0.2, 14 September 1997
- Author: Kurt Fedra
Description of the Monitoring Networks
Athens monitoring network
The current equipment of the Athens Atmospheric Pollution Monitoring
Network (APMN) consists of two PC-compatibles without network
connection, that use modems and and a specific communications package
to contact the data loggers through the telephone.
Simple ASCII data are downloaded, and stored in a custom-made data base on
the PCs in DBF format. Data base dumps (exports) in ASCII format are
Annual data amount to approximately 10 MB, the total amount of historical
data stored since 1984 is approximately 120 MB.
The National Environmental Data Network (NEDN) with a central node in
Athens and a number of regional units is not yet connected to the
atmospheric pollution monitoring, as an update and restructuring of
NEDN facilities is imminent.
NEDN currently operates an HP 9000 Server connected to five low-end
graphical workstations (HP 9000-705) and a number of color and black and
white X-terminals. All workstation are operating under HP-UX,
as a relational data base engine Ingres is used.
Planned upgrades relevant to the APMN are
- restructuring of the APMN into an Operational Center (>B>OC)
for monitoring and short-term forecasting
- expansion and restructuring of the NEDN.
Since both measures are just entering the tendering state, ECOSIM can only
use the available technical specification as the basis for designing
the interface and integration of the APMN.
Since the actual implementation
and routine operation of the new systems will take at the very least
till mid 1997 for the OC and at least two years (end of 1998) for the
NEDN, the integration with ECOSIM will have to be based on
historical data in a simulated Data Resources Server with the
characteristics of the planned OC.
The OC will use an HP 9000-7.xx workstation under HP-UX,
the TCP-IP protocol for networking, and the ORACLE RDBMS as a data base
These specifications are fully in line with the ECOSIM
and will allow on-line access to the monitoring data through TCP/IP
and http over LAN or WAN connections.
The BLUME Monitoring network in Berlin
BLUME guarantees continuous air quality monitoring
- to measure the air pollution for the licensing
of plants according to the Technical Instruction of Air
Quality Control (TA Luft)
- to identify sources of air pollution
- to verify the effect of air pollution control
- to detect smog-situations within the framework of
smog alert plans
The network consists of measurement equipment placed
in containers which are positioned in a 4 km-grid according to the requirements
of the TA Luft.
Additional measurements are performed in streets
and residential areas with high pollution. The same measuring
devices are on top of Berlin-Frohnau's Telephone tower at a height
of 324 m to determine the influence of distant sources. All measuring
devices are connected via telephone to the central computer, which
controls the complete network and at the same time
serves as the evaluation unit. In 1994, there were 45 containers with
147 measuring devices, among them 39 units for SO2,
43 for suspended particulate matter, 29 for
NOx, 21 for CO, 10 for ozone, and 5 for HC(Hydrocarbons).
investment for the monitoring equipment was about 10 million DM.
Costs for operation and maintenance are about
1,6 million DM per year. A team of 20 technicians
and scientists is responsible for the operation of the network
and the evaluation of the data.
The data of ambient air monitoring are shown permanently
on a display in the entrance hall of our office. 30-minute-values
are transferred automatically to the Meteorological Institute
of the Freie Universität Berlin. The institute's online weather
includes a report on ambient air quality in Berlin
and is updated hourly. These reports are broadcasted
regularly by several radio stations. From Monday through Friday,
all 11 o'clock values and the maxima of the last 24 hours are
daily in the press service of the government
of Berlin. The information is
also accessible through
the BTX system of the German Telecom.
The air pollution by SO2 and dust has gone down since
1976 to about 20 % and 60 % due to the shift of from coal to cleaner fuels
for domestic heating systems, and the reduction of the limits for sulfur content of the coal.
Levels of SO2 pollution are
almost identical in both parts of Berlin, whereas dust-concentrations
are higher in the eastern part. The daily
trends of pollution levels on workdays and on the weekends show the
strong influence of vehicle traffic, especially on the NOx concentrations.
Usually, pollution levels reach a maximum in the inner-city
areas during rush-hour on weekdays.
The distribution of ozone shows the opposite trend.
Ozone is the only pollutant where concentrations on weekends and
in the the suburbs are higher than in the inner city area.
Author: W.Reichenbächer, Stadtsenat Berlin.
Air Quality Management in Berlin
Since the year 1988 the ozone concentration in the surface layer
is continuously registered by the Berlin Air Quality Measuring Network
Today we have 11 stations in the region of Berlin. As the ozone formation
in the lower atmosphere is forced by summer temperatures and intense
solar radiation we document this concentration not as an annual
mean value, but as the average daily maximum during the summer
months (April to September). This value remained nearly constant during
the last 8 years, only during 1992 and 1994, where we had
very high temperatures during the summer months, there were
slightly higher values registered.
Since summer 1995 in Germany the Federal Immission Protection Act
has been supplemented to give the legal basis to „summer smog"
ordinances, if there were maximum half-hour ozone-loads
of more than 180 µg/m³ respective 240 µg/m³
measured in a wide area. The lower value has been exceeded in
Berlin at 9 days during the year 1995, 4 days in 1996 and 5 days in 1997.
The higher value (240 µg/m³), which would cause driving
restrictions for cars, which have no regulated catalytic converters,
was not reached in Berlin during the last years.
Only during 2 days in the summer of 1994 such high concentrations
To simulate the formation of ozone in the region of Berlin the
model REGOZON was created by the GMD in the years 1992 to 1993.
To validate the model results with real data, we had a measuring
campaign together with Brandenburg, where 2 planes, regional
measuring networks, mobile measuring vehicles and observatories
collected data of ozone, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons.
The campaign of 23. to 27.7.94 was undertaken during the first phase
of a long period of high summer weather with a series
of 11 so-called ‘hot days’.
At the 27.7.1994 at 16 h during highest ozone concentration of
240 µg/m³ were observed over the southern (lee-side) city limits.
There are low ozone levels in the city center caused by
high NOx emissions of the traffic.
In order to compare the model calculation with this experimental
measuring results, the existing REGOZON (Mieth, P, et al, 1992, 1993)
simulation model was applied to the real weather and emission
situation of 27.7.94 The basis of the model is a
three-layer mesoscalic flow and transport model and the chemical
reaction mechanism CBM-IV.
The simulation results agree well with the measurements.
Maximum ozone concentration is attained in the plume of the
city at some distance from the centre like they were measured.
The simulations confirmed the existence of considerable ozone
production in the area investigated, caused by the human
emissions of ozone precursor substances in the built-up area
The degree of ozone production of Berlin was very well registered
by the ozone measurements in the planes during their flights across
the city, which always showed higher ozone concentrations (14% to 44
%) behind the city than in front of the city (lee effect).
This fact gives us the security, that it may be possible to influence
the peak ozone concentration in the region of Berlin by
reducing the emissions of the precursor substances nitrogen oxide and
Only with model simulations it is possible to calculate
the effects on ozone concentration, which can be obtained
by reducing the emission. The actual emission reduction
which could be achieved by the possible regulations
of „summer smog alarm"are:
- 10 % Voluntary reduction of emissions from large industrial plants
- 15 % Voluntary reduction of emissions from small industrial plants
- 5 % Voluntary reduction of emissions from households
- Restrictions for traffic during smog-period:
- only cars with three-way catalytic converters or cars and vans
with low emission diesel engines may drive,
- the maximum speed outside cities is limited to 80 km/h on
roads and to 90 km/h on highways.
In the region of Berlin these restrictions result in a
reduction of 32% of the nitrogen oxide and 27% of the
hydrocarbons emission.The ozone-simulation for this scenario show,
that the peak ozone concentration was reduced by less
than 10%, so the measures against high ozone concentrations in
the region of Berlin may have a (small) effect.
In the German Federal Immission Protection Act the government can forbid the
traffic by cars without catalytic converter, if the maximum ozone
concentration is forecasted to be higher than 240µg/m³.
So the Berlin government needs a forecast of maximum ozone concentrations
for the next day, to plan their „summer smog" ordinances.
The first step in this direction was to use the REGOZON model
for this purpose. The ECOSIM Project of the European Commission has that
goal too, so we work in this project as a partner.
Since this summer the REGOZON model was modified to use all available
weather and air pollution data in the region of Berlin to make
a 24 hour forecast of the ozone concentration field.
The results can be called from the Internet
every day. That is the first time that an regional ozone-forecasting model
is running automatically and online. As an example the 24-hour-forecast of
the ozone load on August 13th of this year is shown.
The maximum forecasted ozone concentration for this day was about
170 µg/m³ and the maximum measured value was about 180 µg/m³.
In the most of the cases during this summer the results of the simulation
were not as good as this one, because there are still no weather
forecasting data used in this version of the model. This will be
changed during the next weeks. After this modifications,
some situations of high ozone concentration will be re-calculated
with the model, to prove whether and in which degree the results
are better when weather forecasting data were used to drive the REGOZON model.