Environmental Impact Analysis:
Scoping, Screening, Assessment
    EIA - Environmental Impact Assessment:   A Coastal Water Quality Example

    Lebanon Chemical Fertilizer Factory, Selaata:   release of phosphogypsum sludge
    The ROMS model system for the Selaata case study has been implemented as a web-based client-server solution together with a range of auxiliary data processing and modeling tools for ICZM (Fedra, 2008) including:
    • Monitoring data management for input time series, but also simulated monitoring stations for which model generated values can be extracted;
    • Embedded GIS, including DEM, bathymetry, satellite imagery, and model results (matrices);
    • Interactive bathymetry editor, combining ETOPO1 global bathymetry data and interactively defined depth reading e.g., from local marine charts;
    • MM5 3D meteorological model system for the generation of distributed hourly meteorological (surface) forcings;
    • On-line (hypertext) manual pages and tutorial instructions for the implementation and the individual tools;
    • User management for remote access;
    • Optional air quality models using the continuous meteorological modeling estimating atmospheric dispersion from the plant and dust deposition over coastal waters as additional atmospheric inputs.

    Geographical scope
    The coastal flow and transport model is set in nested domains around the FCC plant. The master domain includes a 6 km radius around the fertilizer plant in UTM zone 36. Within this master domain, smaller (near-field) model domains can be defined for model runs with higher spatial resolution.

    Nested model domains around a central 5 by 5 km are around the discharge point within a 12 by 12 km master domain are being defined with varying resolutions down to 10 m for the near field, 10 or more vertical layers (including one layer for vertically aggregated data), and the necessary input data: bathymetry, surface forcings, lateral boundary (flow) conditions, and emissions are being compiled, analysed, and integrated in a set of data bases for direct use by mode scenarios.

    Local Bathymetry has been prepared by a combination of ETOPO1 global bathymetry data and local data from the British Admiralty chart 1652 (1:25,000) with more than 100 depth soundings interpolated by the Kriging method Meteorological boundary conditions for the ROMS model scenarios are generated by the 3D prognostic meteorological model MM5 with hourly and 1 km spatial resolution.

    ROMS is being configured for the simulation of "cohesive sediments" to represent the phosphogysum sludge, with sedimentation and erosion processes considered. The model describes dispersion, sedimentation, and re-suspension of sediments on a regular quadratic (horizontal) grid with terrain following vertical resolution.

    Model output
    Model runs produce the following output matrices:

      Matrixlong namematrix description
      ubarvertically integrated u-momentum component
      vbarvertically integrated v-momentum component
      uu-momentum component
      vv-momentum component
      wvertical momentum component
      omegaS-coordinate vertical momentum component
      temppotential temperature
      dye_01dye concentration, type 01
      mud_01suspended cohesive sediment, size class 01
      mud_02suspended cohesive sediment, size class 02
      sand_01suspended noncohesive sediment, size class 01
      rhodensity anomaly
      AKssalinity vertical diffusion coefficient
      shfluxsurface net heat flux
      ssfluxsurface net salt flux, (E-P)*SALT
      sustrsurface u-momentum stress
      svstrsurface v-momentum stress
      bedload_Umud_01bed load flux of mud in U-direction, size class 01
      bedload_Vmud_01bed load flux of mud in V-direction, size class 01
      bedload_Umud_02bed load flux of mud in U-direction, size class 02
      bedload_Vmud_02bed load flux of mud in V-direction, size class 02
      bedload_Usand_01bed load flux of sand in U-direction, size class 01
      bedload_Vsand_01bed load flux of sand in V-direction, size class 01
      mudfrac_01cohesive sediment fraction, size class 01
      mudfrac_02cohesive sediment fraction, size class 02
      sandfrac_01noncohesive sediment fraction, size class 01
      mudmass_01cohesive sediment mass, size class 01
      mudmass_02cohesive sediment mass, size class 02
      sandmass_01noncohesive sediment mass, size class 01
      bed_thicknesssediment bed layer thickness
      bed_agesediment layer age
      bed_porositysediment layer porosity
      grain_diametersediment median grain diameter size
      grain_densitysediment median grain density
      settling_velsediment median grain settling velocity
      erosion_stresssediment median critical erosion stress
      ripple_lengthbottom ripple length
      ripple_heightbottom ripple height
      bed_wave_ampbed wave excursion amplitude
      Zo_defdefault bottom roughness
      Zo_appapparent bottom roughness

    Case study: LCC, Selaata ROMS Model description Input data Scenario analysis On-line demo system

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